Benzodiazapine

Understanding and describing Australian illicit drug markets

This study has provided a detailed description of the drug purchase and drug use patterns of a cohort of people who inject drugs, and an understanding of changes that occurred between 2009 and 2014. During this period, heroin, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines and other opioids were typically purchased between 10am and 2pm with very little search time, were used almost immediately following their acquisition, and sharing a purchase or pooling money with a partner or friend was common, as were larger (>$100) purchases. Reported drug purchases and drug use both occurred more frequently in private homes than public settings, and this became increasingly so over time. Although the primary drug of the cohort remained heroin, two trends in drug use were observed: a transition from heroin to cannabis use, consistent with some of the cohort ‘maturing out’; and among existing methamphetamine users, a transition from powder to crystal methamphetamine use and increased methamphetamine consumption, corresponding with increased availability of the crystal form and a dramatic decrease in purity-adjusted price.

Benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid misuse and their relationship to crime

Northern Territory report

Plain English summary and implications for police prepared by Roger Nicholas.

Benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid misuse and their relationship to crime

Tasmanian report

Plain English summary and implications for police prepared by Roger Nicholas.

Benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid misuse and their relationship to crime

National Overview

Plain English summary and implications for police prepared by Roger Nicholas.

The impact of drugs on road crashes, assaults and other trauma - a prospective trauma toxicology study

Plain English summary and implications for police prepared by Roger Nicholas.

Benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid misuse and their relationship to crime

Tasmanian Report

The purpose of this major research project was to contribute to law enforcement sector understanding of the relationship between benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid misuse and crime in three select Australian jurisdictions (Victoria, Tasmania, Northern Territory) where there is evidence of illicit prescription pharmaceutical markets. This report focuses on the Tasmanian aspect of the study. While the primary focus of the study remains on law enforcement interests in relation to licit and illicit benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid markets, these are discussed in relation to the broader public health implications of supply reduction efforts in a harm minimisation framework.

Benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid misuse and their relationship to crime - An examination of illicit prescription drug markets in Melbourne, Hobart and Darwin

National Overview report

The National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund sought tenders in 2002 for research to enhance law enforcement sector understanding of the structure and functioning of illicit drug markets in Australia - with a particular focus on illicit markets for prescription pharmaceuticals namely benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioids, their misuse and impact on crime in Victoria, Tasmania and the Northern Territory, where there is evidence of illicit prescription pharmaceutical markets. While the primary focus of the study remains on law enforcement interests in relation to licit and illicit benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid markets, where warranted these are discussed in relation to the broader public health implications of the range of interventions potentially available as a response to the markets being examined, and their impact. This report presents a review of the literature, an overview of study methodology, key findings and jurisdiction-specific discussion points. The section outlining the key findings is structured according to the main study themes of market characteristics, diversion and links to crime, implications for police and other front line workers, and interventions.