All NDLERF publications, listed by most recent release date.

June 2017

Australian police diversion for cannabis offences: Assessing program outcomes and cost-effectiveness
Monograph 66

Police diversion is one of Australia’s most utilised interventions for minor cannabis offenses.

Consequences of concurrent amphetamine type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use by young adults Offending behaviour, victimisation, other harms
Monograph 60

In 2009, the young adult cohort for the Natural History Study of Drug Use (NHSDU) was recruited, comprising regular amphetamine-type stimulant user

March 2017

December 2016

Alcohol/Drug-Involved Family Violence in Australia (ADIVA)
Monograph 68

Alcohol/Drug-Involved Family Violence in Australia (ADIVA) primarily sought to determine the relationships between alcohol and other drug (AOD) use

Cloud Authentication and Forensics
Monograph 69

Criminally motivated individuals will seek to exploit opportunities to avoid prosecution, such as using the latest technologies (e.g.

Managing intoxicated offenders Best practice in responding to individuals affected by drugs and alcohol
Monograph 65

A considerable proportion of a police officer’s time involves interactions with persons who are intoxicated or under the infl

Stimulant use transitions and harm mitigation responses: Analysis of a qualitative dataset
Monograph 63

Early adulthood is the peak age for involvement in illicit amphetamine-type stimulant use, including use of ecstasy (MDMA) and methamphetamine.

November 2016

Drug and Alcohol intoxication and Subsequent Harm in night-time Entertainment Districts (DASHED)
Monograph 67

Drug and Alcohol Intoxication and Subsequent Harm in night-time Entertainment Districts (DASHED) investigated the harms associated with alcohol acr

August 2016

Policing and pathways to diversion and care among vulnerable young people who use alcohol and other drugs
Monograph 64

This report explores the facilitators and barriers to care for vulnerable young people who use alcohol and other drugs and who have police contact.

Policing and pathways to diversion and care among vulnerable young people who use alcohol and other drugs
Research Bulletin 5

This report explores the facilitators and barriers to care for vulnerable young people who use alcohol and other drugs and who have police contact. In particular, it investigates the role that police in inner-city areas of Sydney (New South Wales/NSW) and Melbourne (Victoria) have in relation to young people’s pathways in the health and welfare service system.

Trafficking in multiple commodities: Exposing Australia’s poly-drug and poly-criminal networks
Monograph 62

International law enforcement agencies have increasingly pointed to an apparent rise in poly-drug traffickers: high level drug traffickers who choo

March 2016

Interventions for reducing alcohol supply, alcohol demand and alcohol-related harms
Research Bulletin 3

Alcohol accounts for approximately four percent of deaths worldwide and 4.65 percent of the global burden of injury and disease, placing it alongsi

February 2016

Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA): An expansion into the Pilbara, Western Australia
Monograph 61

The link between the use of alcohol and other drugs, and crime has been well established by the Australian Institute of Criminology’s Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) project in metropolitan areas around Australia. However, little is known about this link in regional Western Australia. To better understand alcohol and drug use among a regional offending population, the DUMA project was utilised to collect data in the Pilbara region of Western Australia. In South Hedland (regional Western Australia), 51 police detainees were interviewed and compared with a sample of 209 Perth (metropolitan Western Australia) detainees. The present study provides empirical evidence on the usage patterns and role of alcohol and other drugs, and a picture of the local drug market in the Pilbara. The findings indicated that alcohol use was much higher in the regional setting, however illicit drug use among those interviewed was significantly lower across most drug types. Of particular concern were the levels of risky drinking reported by South Hedland detainees; which they were more likely to attribute to their current detention. The findings suggest the holistic approach to dealing with higher levels of substance use in the region should continue. These findings will assist in responding to community needs to shape prevention and response strategies.

December 2015

Social supply of cannabis in Australia
Monograph 59

Australian retail markets for most illicit drugs, including cannabis, are based significantly upon friendships and occur in closed settings. This has been described as ‘lounge room’, as opposed to ‘street’, dealing (Nicholas 2008). Similar observations have been made in other countries, and in the UK the term ‘social supply’ was coined to describe this aspect of the drug market where a supplier who is not considered to be a ‘drug dealer proper’ brokers, facilitates or sells drugs, for little or no financial gain, to friends and acquaintances (Hough et al. 2003). In this qualitative and quantitative study, a convenience sample of 200 cannabis users aged between 18 and 30 years were interviewed in Perth (n=80), Melbourne (n=80) and Armidale (NSW; n=40). They were recruited online and through the mainstream street press, flyers, and snowballing. Participants mostly described a closed market characterised by high levels of trust between consumers and suppliers already known to each other at the level of adjacent pairs or small group networks, typically selling in private. Their qualitative accounts of what happened last time they scored or obtained cannabis provided rich descriptions of the process of obtaining cannabis for these young users. Although participants often described their main cannabis supplier as ‘a friend’, roughly three-fifths reported this relationship was a friendship first and two-fifths reported it was a supply relationship first. Overall, 94 percent of the sample had ever supplied cannabis and 78 percent had done so in the past six months. Although most people who engaged in supply understood that their activities would be regarded as such in law, most did not consider themselves to be a dealer. The findings have implications for the policing of social supply drug markets, the public education of participants in the social supply market and how social supply offences are dealt with in law.

May 2015

Development of a drink driving program for regional and remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities
Monograph 55

The majority of Indigenous fatal road injuries are sustained by road users in regional and remote areas, whereby a strong association between alcohol and serious and fatal non-metropolitan road crashes has been established. Moreover, Indigenous Australians are overrepresented in drink driving arrests generally and in drink driving recidivism rates. While national and state transport agencies recommend better countermeasures to reduce risky driving practices among Indigenous road users, there is sparse evidence to inform new treatment measures. The project is comprised of three independent but linked stages of quantitative and qualitative research. Analysis of drink driving convictions (2006-2010) in Queensland, identified drink driving convictions were more predominant in rural and remote areas. Qualitative interviews were conducted with participants residing in Cairns and Cape York region in Queensland and Northern New South Wales. Unique risk factors associated with drink driving in the Indigenous context were identified, including kinship pressure and alcohol restrictions. Based on the findings from the two phases, a four session program for regional and remote Indigenous communities was developed. The program, one of first of its kind in Australia, was trialled in three communities. Focus groups and interviews were conducted at the completion of the program to determine short-term perceptions of the content and delivery suitability as well as program recommendations. The program has the ability to be an effective treatment option as part of a community-based sentencing option and assist in reducing drink driving in Indigenous Australian regional and remote communities. Program recommendations and other policy considerations to reduce drink driving in Indigenous communities are discussed.

Understanding and describing Australian illicit drug markets
Monograph 58

This study has provided a detailed description of the drug purchase and drug use patterns of a cohort of people who inject drugs, and an understanding of changes that occurred between 2009 and 2014. During this period, heroin, methamphetamine, benzodiazepines and other opioids were typically purchased between 10am and 2pm with very little search time, were used almost immediately following their acquisition, and sharing a purchase or pooling money with a partner or friend was common, as were larger (>$100) purchases. Reported drug purchases and drug use both occurred more frequently in private homes than public settings, and this became increasingly so over time. Although the primary drug of the cohort remained heroin, two trends in drug use were observed: a transition from heroin to cannabis use, consistent with some of the cohort ‘maturing out’; and among existing methamphetamine users, a transition from powder to crystal methamphetamine use and increased methamphetamine consumption, corresponding with increased availability of the crystal form and a dramatic decrease in purity-adjusted price.

Drink driving among Indigenous Australians in outer regional and remote communities and development of a drink driving program: A summary of findings and recommendations
Research Bulletin 2

Drink driving is a leading cause of criminal justice system contact for Indigenous Australians. National and state strategies recommend Indigenous road safety initiatives are warranted. However, there is sparse evidence to inform drink driving-related preventive and treatment measures. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, the study examines the profile of Queensland’s Indigenous drink drivers using court convictions and identifies the contributing psycho-social, cultural and contextual factors through qualitative interviews.

An empirical basis for the ratio of crowd controllers to patrons
Monograph 54

Managing the safety of patrons and others in event and venue settings is of significant concern in Australia. A key strategy for dealing with this issue is the use of crowd controllers.
Determining sufficient crowd controller numbers to reduce the potential for harm at events and venues is, however, problematic given the many variables that are involved.
This study identifies key risk factors impacting the crowd controller to patron ratio decision and develops decision aids (Crowd Controller Assessment Tools) for use by those faced with advising on, or making decisions about, crowd management.

March 2015

Interventions for reducing alcohol supply, alcohol demand and alcohol-related harm
Monograph 57

This project synthesises existing evidence and knowledge to improve our understanding of good practice in minimising the range of harms associated with alcohol misuse, especially supply and demand reduction strategies. It builds on the literature by using a Delphi study to answer many of the existing questions for which no research literature yet exists. All interventions that aim to reduce the supply of alcohol discussed in this report have received substantial evidence for their effectiveness. Specifically, reducing alcohol outlet opening hours, increasing minimum legal purchase age, reducing alcohol outlet density and controlling alcohol sales times have each undergone a vast number of evaluations and have been found to be effective in reducing the supply of alcohol and reducing the harms associated with its consumption.